HYDROGEN STORAGE – METHODS OF HYDROGEN STORAGE

HYDROGEN STORAGE – METHODS OF HYDROGEN STORAGE

HYDROGEN STORAGE

Hydrogen’s energy content by volume is low. This makes  hydrogen storage a challenge because it requires high pressures, low temperatures, or chemical processes to be stored compactly. Overcoming this challenge is important for light-duty vehicles because they often have limited size and weight capacity for fuel storage.
The storage capacity for hydrogen in light-duty vehicles should enable a driving range of more than 300 miles to meet consumer needs. Because hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density compared with gasoline, storing this much hydrogen on a vehicle currently requires a larger tank than most conventional vehicles.
Three possible solutions have been proposed. These potential hydrogen delivery systems include compressed tube trailers, liquid storage tank trucks, and compressed gas pipelines. One major disadvantage of each system is the high capital costs.

METHODS OF HYDROGEN STORAGE

 

Storage Form Advantages Disadvantages
Compressed Gas -Reliable
-Indefinite storage time
-Easy to use
-Higher capital and operating costs
-Heat can cause container rupture
Liquid High density at low pressure -High cost
-Low temperatures needed
-Escape can cause fire or asphyxiation
Metal Hydride -High volume efficiencies
-Easy recovery
-Very safe
-Expensive materials
-Heavy storage tanks

TYPES O METAL HYDRIDES USED IN HYDROGEN STORAGE

Metal Hydride % Hydrogen by mass Equilibrium Pressure (bar) Equilibrium Temperature (K)
Pd PdH0.6 0.56 0.020 298
LaNi5 LaNi5H6 1.37 2 298
ZrV2 ZrV2H5.5 3.01 10-8 323
FeTi FeTiH2 1.89 5 303
Mg2Ni Mg2NiHi4 3.59 1 555
TiV2 TiV2H4 2.60 10 313